About Oman

Oman officially is known as the Sultanate of Oman. It is a country in an Arab world located in Southwest Asia. The nation is surrounded by Saudi Arabia to the west, United Arab Emirates to the northwest and Yemen to the southwest. It shares water boundaries with Pakistan and Iran.

Area : 309,500 km2.
Highest point: Jabal Shams (Mountain of the Sun), is around 3,000 meters.
Capital: Muscat
Population : The 1 January 2016, the population of Oman was estimated to be 3 590 277 people.
The sex ratio of the total population was 1.439 (1 439 males per 1 000 females).
About oman


Oman lies between latitudes 16° and 28° N, and longitudes 52° and 60° E. A vast gravel desert plain covers most of central Oman, with mountain ranges along the north (Al Hajar Mountains) and southeast coast, where the countrys main cities are also located: the capital city Muscat, Sohar and Sur in the north, and Salalah in the south. Omans climate is hot and dry in the interior and humid along the coast. The peninsula of Musandam (Musandem) exclave, which has a strategic location on the Strait of Hormuz, is separated from the rest of Oman by the United Arab Emirates.

Governorates of Oman

Before 28 October 2011, Oman was divided into five regions (mintaqah) and four governorates (muhafazah). The fourth governorate, Buraymi, was created in October 2006 from parts of Ad Dhahirah Region. The regions are further subdivided into 61 provinces (wilayat). Each region has one or more regional center with a grand total of twelve.

Map Nr Subdivision Main Town Area km2 Population Census of 2010 wilayat
1 Ad Dakhiliyah Nizwa 31,900 326,651 8
3 Al Batinah Sohar 12,500 772,590 12
5 Al Wusta Haima 79,700 42,111 4
6 Ash Sharqiyah Sur 36,400 350,514 11
2 Ad Dhahirah Ibri 37,0001) 151,664 3
Governorates (muhafazah)
9 Muscat Masqat 3,900 775,878 6
8 Musandam Khasab 1,800 31,425 4
7 Dhofar Salalah 99,300 249,729 10
4 Al Buraymi[5] Al Buraymi 7,000 72,917 3
Governorates of Oman

History of Oman

There have been discoveries of Palaeolithic stone tools in caves in southern and central Oman, and in the United Arab Emirates close to the Straits of Hormuz at the outlet of the Persian Gulf. These stone tools, some up to 125,000 years old, resemble those made by humans in Africa around the same period. This is the southern route ‘out of Africa’.

During early history Oman was known as the Land of Frankincense. Sumerians traded with Oman, and the Persian Achaemenid dynasty, controlled and/or influenced the Omani peninsula. This influential control was most likely exerted from a coastal center such as Sohar. The Frankincense Trailis a site in Oman on the Incense Road. The site includes frankincense trees, Khor Rori and the remains of a caravan oasis. The Frankincense Trail has been declared aUNESCO World Heritage Site.

From the 3rd century B.C. to the arrival of Islam in the 7th century A.D, Oman was controlled by two other Iranian dynasties, the Parthians (Whites) and the Sassanids.

Oman adopted Islam in the 7th century, during the lifetime of the prophet Muhammad. Ibadism became the dominant religious sect in Oman by the 8th century; Ibadhism is known for its "moderate conservatism

"Ruins at Khor Rori"

Between 967 and 1053, Oman was part of the domain of the Iranian Buyyids: The Buyyids were Persian people, inhabiting the mountainous regions of northern Persia on the southern shore of the Caspian Sea.

Between 1053 and 1154, Oman was part of the Great Seljuk Turk Empire.

In 1154, the indigenous Nabhani dynasty took control of Oman, and the Nabhani kings ruled Oman until 1470, with an interruption of 37 years between 1406 and 1443.



Frankincense Trailis

Portuguese and Omanis

The capital Muscat was taken by the Portuguese on 1 April 1515, and was held until 26 January 1650, although the Ottomans controlled Muscat between 1550–1551 and 1581–1588. In about the year 1600, Nabhani rule was temporarily restored to Oman, although that lasted only to 1624, when fifth imamate, which is also known as the Yarubid Imamate. The Yarubid recaptured Muscat from the Portuguese in 1650 after a colonial presence on the northeastern coast of Oman dating to 1508.

The Yarubid dynasty expanded, acquiring former Portuguese colonies in East Africa - including Zanzibar.

The Iranians had occupied the coast before—indeed the coast was often the possession of various empires. These empires brought order to the religious and ethnic diversity of the population of this cosmopolitan region. Yet the intervention on behalf of an unpopular dynasty brought about a revolt. The leader of the revolt, Ahmad ibn Said al Said, was elected sultan of Muscat upon the expulsion of the Iranians. During the period of Al Said dynasty of sultan Said ibn sultan Al Said rule (1806-1856), Oman cultivated in its East African colocnie.

Oman held territories on the island of Zanzibar on the Swahili Coast, the area along the coast of the African Great Lakes region known as Zanj includingMombasa and Dar es Salaam, and (until 1958) in Gwadar (in present-day Pakistan) on the coast of the Arabian Sea.

The freedom from the Portuguese was however shortlived as the Omanis annexed Zanzibar and many coastal towns to their empire that was ruled from Muscat. In the 18th century, Zanzibar and Pemba were subject to the sultans of Muscat and Oman. In 1832 the Omani sultan Sayyid Said (1787-1856) established his residence on Zanzibar, where he promoted the production of cloves and palm oil and carried on an active slave trade with the interior. Although Sayyid Said had full control of Zanzibar Island as early as 1822, Pemba was to a great extent ruled by the Mazruis of Mombasa.

British and German Era and Oman Empire in East Africa The 18th century was an era where Germans and British were looking for colonies throughout the world and East Africa was not an exception. Upon his death, Sayyid Said had controlled a large empire but his successors did not have a legal claim to the lands they controlled commercially, and did not have the power to keep the Germans and British from annexing them when the www.academia.edu The partition of Africa following the Berlin Confrence of 1884 offered the Sultan a claim to the islands of Zanzibar and Pemba and a coastal strip of 10 miles on the mainland of East Africa.

The British and Germans came into agreement with the Sultan to sell his posses sion on the mainland and by the end of 19th century very little remained in his control. The Germans, who were first in colonizing Tanzania agreed with the British to exchange Zanzibar with Heligoland and though the Sultan was still ruling, it was a de facto British colony. Zanzibar of that time included the islands of Zanzibar, Pemba, Latham and surrounding islets and theoretically it included the coastal strip of Kenya. Mombasa and the coastal strip of Kenya was handed to the new independent government of Kenya as late as 1963. The Zanzibar Revolution saw the 1964 overthrow of the Sultan of Zanzibar.

Muscat and Mutrah

Muscat and Mutrah

Said bin Sultan Al-Said

Said bin Sultan Al-Said

The Omani Empire

www.academia.edu ( The Omani Empire)

  • House of wonder

    House of wonder

  • Stone town Zanzibar

    Stone town Zanzibar

Modern Oman

With the help of British advisors, Sultan Qaboos bin Sa`i d assumed power on July 23, 1970, in a palace coup directed against his father, Sa`id bin Taymur, who later died in exile in London.

After 1970 the sultan modernized the country in what became known as the Omani Renaissance. In 1971 Oman joined the Arab league and the United Nations. In the years from 1970 to 2013 life expectancy in Oman greatly increased. In 2003 women in Oman were allowed to vote for the first time. Today revenue from oil is declining but the government of Oman is trying to diversify the economy. Today Oman is a prosperous and developed country. Today the population of Oman is 3 million.

  • Sultan Qaboos bin Sa`i d

    Sultan Qaboos bin Sa`i d

  • Modern Oman (Royal Opera House

    Modern Oman (Royal Opera House)


The climate of Muscat features a hot, arid climate with long and very hot summers and mild winters. Annual rainfall in Muscat is about 100 mm (4 in), falling mostly from December to April. In general, precipitation is scarce in Muscat with several months, on average, seeing only a trace of rainfall. The climate is very hot, with temperatures reaching as high as 49 °C (120 °F) in the summer. For sightseeing, the best time to visit Muscat is from December to March as the temperatures are moderate and pleasant, making it easy to move around. Between mid-March and October, travel is very exhausting with the average temperature between 31 °C to 38 °C and sunburn and dehydration are possible.

oman climate


Arabic is the official language of Oman. It belongs to the Semitic branch of the Afroasiatic family. According to the CIA, besides Arabic, English, Baluchi (Southern Baluchi), Urdu, and various Indian dialects are the main languages spoken in Oman. Baluchi is the mother tongue of the Baloch people from Balochistan in western-Pakistan, eastern Iran, and southern Afghanistan. Endangered indigenous languages in Oman include Kumzari, Bathari, Harsusi, Hobyot, Jibbali and Mehri. Omani Sign Language is the language of the deaf community. Additionally, the Bantu Swahili is widely spoken in the country due to the historical relations between Oman and Zanzibar.


Rial omani (OMR)
1 OMR= 2.59740 USD

Time zone

+4 GMT

Religious Aspect

As visitors will notice, the Sultanate of Oman is a modern, which is unique among Islamic countries in the Middle-East. Although the great majority of the population is Muslim, there is a full respect and tolerance toward other religions, cultures, and descents.